By Donald C. Daniel

The assumption that ballistic missile submarines or SSBs are hugely survivable is the first the reason is, they've got turn out to be considered as the final word guarantors of nuclear deterrence and as a result, of strategic balance. however, because the first deployment of SSBNs greater than twenty years in the past, it's been the perform of many Western ( and possibly additionally Soviet) policy-makers and observers to be prudently skeptical in regards to the survivability of the submarines within the long-term. The expression of such perspectives was once often associated with allusions to potential anti-submarine conflict (ASW) advancements, yet, other than almost certainly within the previous couple of years, such assertions had no major o lasting impact at the consensus that the submarines may most likely stay survivable.

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Finally, the continuity of a wake is conditioned by the strength and direction of underwater currents and flows which act upon it. An important factor affecting the passive detection of the wake (as opposed to active detection by means of a laser, already discussed) is that, as noted earlier, it remains confined in the general vicinity of the submarine's depth stratum. 51 Hence, it can be passively observed only if a sensor is inserted at about the same depth as the submarine - a rather impractical measure if the aim is large open-ocean search.

The most simple type (and the one most likely to be used) would involve the trailer 'illuminating' the target with bursts of acoustic energy from a sonar, much as a radar illuminates an ceroplane with microwave energy. If the trailer remains close to the target and has a speed and depth advantage, the quarry could find it difficult to elude the hunter. Yet the very overtness of the trail also simplifies the application of countermeasures. One of these is to have the submarine that knows it is being trailed generate a 'dense underwater cloud of bubbles' such that the sonar 'could mistake the cloud for a submarine or could not observe the submarine manreuvring behind the screen to escape' .

Much of the information in this paragraph is drawn from this source, p. 193-6. Ibid, p. 196. Ibid. Ibid, p. 194. See also US Congressional Budget Office, The US Sea-Based Strategic Force: Costs of the Trident Submarine and Missile Programs and Alternatives (Washington: February 1980) p. 48. 2 Submarine Observables and Indicators Submarine observables consist of the submarine itself and detectable changes in the environment caused by its presence or activities. From an area-search perspective, the environmental changes may be easier to deal with since a submarine by itself is a relatively small object, hard to detect against its background.

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Anti-Submarine Warfare and Superpower Strategic Stability by Donald C. Daniel
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