By Jaakko Hintikka

I n order to understand correctly what we're doing during this booklet it will be important to achieve that our method of linguistic theorizing differs from the present perspectives. Our method might be defined by means of indicating what distinguishes it from the methodological principles present in theoretical linguistics, which I think of heavily faulty. Linguists regularly construe their job at present as that of creating exceptionless generalizations from specific examples. This explanatory approach is inaccurate in numerous alternative ways. It presupposes that we will have "intuitions" approximately specific examples, frequently examples invented through the linguist himself or herself, trustworthy and sharp sufficient to function a foundation of sharp generalizations. It additionally presupposes that we can't have both trustworthy direct entry to basic linguistic regularities. either assumptions seem to me tremendous doubtful, and the 1st of them has in impact been challenged by way of linguists like Dwight Bol inger. there's additionally a few proof that the measure of unanimity between linguists in all fairness low by way of much less transparent circumstances, even in reference to such fairly uncomplicated questions as grammaticality (acceptability). consequently now we have attempted to depend extra on quotations from modern fiction, newspapers and magazines than on linguists' and philosophers' advert hoc examples. I additionally locate it unusual that many of the comparable linguists as think that all of us own innate rules approximately common features of humanly attainable grammars think that we will be able to have entry to them purely through their specific consequences.

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24 Strictly speaking, in the output of (G. knows that) and (G. knows who) X should be replaced by an expression that is like X except that third-person masculine singular pronouns are replaced by "b" (if "b ll is masculine and singular) or that third-person feminine singular pronouns are replaced by lib II (if lib" is feminine and singular), etc .. These epistemic rules illustrate another difference between formal and natural languages. As (G. knows who) shows, the IIwholl in (50) is in effect an ambidextrous quantifier: it can be either an existential or a universal quantifier.

However, on apparently plausible assumptions concerning syntactic structure, "everybody" c-commands "some", and hence ought to be dealt with first, if (0. CR) is correct. This presupposes only that there is no branching node between the one for "everybody" and 20 PART I the top node of (45). The need of this assumption seems to be confirmed by the fact, to be established in Part III chap. 5, that in the structurally similar sentence (47) Near him, John saw a snake a rule has to be applied to "John" before one is applied to "him".

Russellian the), in three different orders and expressing the results in a selfexplanatory semiformal notation we obtain the following three readings: (26) (27) (28) (Ex) (x is a unique author of Waverley & 'VGeorge knows that (x is Scott)) 'V( Ex) (x is a unique author of Waverley & George knows that (x is Scott)) 'VGeorge knows (Ex) (x is the unique author of Waverley) & (x is Scott)) In (26), George does not know of the individual who as a matter of fact is a unique author of Waverley that he is Scott.

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Anaphora and Definite Descriptions: Two Applications of by Jaakko Hintikka
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