By T. Ostenfeld, C. N. Svendsen (auth.), J. D. Pickard, V. V. Dolenc, J. Lobo Antunes, JH.-J. Reulen, M. Sindou, A. J. Strong, N. de Tribolet, C. A. F. Tulleken, M. Vapalahti (eds.)

As an addition to the ecu postgraduate education procedure for younger neurosurgeons, we started to post in 1974 this sequence of Advances and Technical criteria in Neurosurgery which used to be later backed via the ecu organization of Neurosurgical Societies. This sequence used to be first mentioned in 1972 at a mixed assembly of the Italian and German Neurosurgical Societies in Taormina, the founding fathers of the sequence being Jean Brihaye, Bernard Pertuiset, Fritz Loew and Hugo Krayenbuhl. hence have been demonstrated the foundations of eu co­ operation which were born from the eu spirit, flourished within the eu organization, and feature been linked all through with this senes. the truth that the English language is now the overseas medium for communique at ecu scientificconferences is a brilliant asset by way of mutual knowing. as a result we've determined to put up all contri­ butions in English, whatever the local language of the authors. All contributions are submitted to the whole editorial board ahead of e-book of any quantity for scrutiny and recommendations for revision. Our sequence isn't really meant to compete with the courses of unique scientificpapers in different neurosurgical journals. Our goal is, relatively, to offer fields of neurosurgery and similar components within which vital fresh advances were made. The contributions are written by way of experts within the given fieldsand represent the 1st a part of each one volume.

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In practice evidence suggests that heterogeneity does indeed exist following the expansion of large numbers of cells in vitro. Such cultures will contain populations of stem cells existing alongside populations of more restricted neural precursors and progenitor cells. Furthermore, the kinetics of cell proliferation and the extent to which heterogeneity exists in culture will depend on the age and region of the donor tissue, in addition to the mitogen employed [212] and the presence of any neuroprotective supplements [333].

N. SVENDSEN have been injected into heterotopic regions of the developing avian [122] and mammalian brain [40, 53, 93, 254], and have been found to incorporate in response to region-specific signals often generating extensive CNS chimerism. Immortalised cell lines have also been shown to retain a high level of developmental plasticity and can participate in the development of many CNS regions [214, 288, 319]. However, similar experiments using epigenetically expanded populations of neural precursors have only been conducted in recent years.

With this in mind, and in keeping with the in vitro observations that the progeny of FGF-2-responsive cultures (arising early in development) tend to produce neurons, while that of EGF-responsive cell cultures tend to produce glial cells, one can speculate that these mitogens playa fundamental role in biasing the temporal restriction of early neural phenotypes within the neural tube. More recently it has been shown that the development of increased EGF-responsiveness in rat embryonic cortical progenitors may be negatively regulated by BMP signalling and inhibited by co-culture with younger cells [195]; the fact that FGF-2 was also seen to accelerate the development of EGF-responsive cells suggests that an antagonistic relationship may exist between FGF and BMP family members during development [195].

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Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery by T. Ostenfeld, C. N. Svendsen (auth.), J. D. Pickard, V. V.
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