By George Hemphill

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Since certain sounds occur only in certain phonetic situations, we are led to note a third kind of allophone (marked " E A " below), that of phonetic environment. Thus it is easy to produce [i] when the consonant following it is anything but [η]. The influence of the [g] is to increase the tension of [i] at least halfway toward the tension of [i]. We say, then, that [i] is an allophone of phonetic environment; and the environment may be described as [ . . η]. 2. T H E PHONEMIC EQUATIONS There are many advantages in presenting the phonemic equations in some previously agreed upon (if arbitrary) order.

That part which means 'move'. Alternatively, the word as sentence yields to a Chomskyan syntactic analysis: S yäbanaumawildjigummaha'nigi NP the 'several people' part of the meaning of ya; banauma, 'everybody'; the 'us' part of the meaning of ha; nigi, 'we'; 7 VP the 'move' part of the meaning of ya; wil, 'across'; dji, 'westward'; gumma, 'indeed'; the 'let' part of the meaning of ha Edward Sapir, "Central and North American Languages", Encyclopedia 14th ed. (London, 1938), V, 139f. Britannica.

For convenience in writing we replace this matrix with the single diphthong /ai/. Simplification of this kind has already been made in phonemic equations (8) and (24) above. In matrix notation these become [ei ei ei e ei ει 61 εΐ] and /o/ = [ou ου ou 9U θυ 9U], respectively, even though [e] and [o] are rare in English. They are heard in French bébé [be*be]and beau [bo]. Ignoring for the moment diphthongs which may be of the form [ g ^ ] . and treating [iu] as an allophone of the \j[qi\ diph- 44 THE SOUNDS OF ENGLISH (IL) thong I jíi¡, there are only two more important phonemic diphthongs, as in the following matrices for t h e sounds of ( o w ) and : /au/ = [au au seo œu ou eu 9ττ] and /oi/ = [oi Ol 01 oi Ol OI 91 ΘΙ 91] I n most dialects of B E a n d some dialects of AE, diphthongs are produced when /q2l = /Θ/.

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A Mathematical Grammar of English by George Hemphill
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