By Alan Cruse

This easy-to-use consultant illuminates key techniques and phrases in semantics and pragmatics and the research of which means because it is conveyed via language.

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In linguistics, the term sometimes has a different meaning. It is used to refer to a phrase that, like an idiom, is stored in the mental lexicon in a ready-made form, but, unlike an idiom, is semantically transparent. Examples are: This is a tax-and-spend Government, You’ll have to wait and see. closed set items These are grammatical elements, either affixes or free words, which have three main characteristics: 1. In a grammatical sentence the possibilities of omitting or substituting them without affecting the grammaticality of the sentence are very limited or non-existent.

Epistemic modality see under modality equipollent antonyms A sub-type of antonym (2). As in the case of overlapping antonyms, each term operates on 793 02 pages 001-202 56 31/3/06 10:19 Page 56 A GLOSSARY OF SEMANTICS AND PRAGMATICS its own scale, but unlike the overlapping type the scales point outwards from a common zero value rather than overlap. For instance, there is a scale of hotness and a scale of coldness pointing in the opposite direction, the zero value of both scales corresponding to the absence of a temperature sensation.

G. g. chairs, dogs) [–bounded][+internal structure] 793 02 pages 001-202 31/3/06 10:19 Page 33 A GLOSSARY OF SEMANTICS AND PRAGMATICS 33 The following example illustrates the semantic analysis of a sentence in this system: Bill went into the house syntactic analysis: [s [np Bill] [vp [v went] [pp [p into] [np the house]]]] semantic analysis: [event GO ([thing BILL], [path TO ([place IN ([thing HOUSE])])])] concrete vs abstract Roughly speaking, concrete in semantics refers to whatever can be seen, heard, tasted, smelled, touched, or felt directly.

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A Glossary of Semantics and Pragmatics by Alan Cruse
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